1. Semantics---- is the study of the literal meaning of a sentence (without taking context into consideration).
Pragmatics---- the study of the intended meaning of a speaker (taking context into consideration)
2. Pragmatics can make sense out of nonsense, given a suitable context.
Appropriateness is very important in linguistic communication, especially in cross-cultural communication.
3. Deixis means “pointing via language”. Any linguistic form used to do this “pointing” is called a deictic expression.
4. Classification of deixis
5. Constatives (叙述句) ---- statements that either state or describe, and are thus verifiable; Performatives (施为句) ---- sentences that do not state a fact or describe a state, and are not verifiable.
6. Locutionary act: act of uttering words, phrases, clauses;
Illocutionary act: the act of expressing the speaker’s intention;
Perlocutionary act: the act performed by or resulting fro saying something, the consequence of the utterance
7. Cooperative principle: Make your conversational contribution such as required at the stage at which it occurs by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged.
8. four maxims under the Cooperative principle
9. The Politeness Principle and the 4 maxims of PP
Ⅰ. Decide whether each of the following statements is true or false.
1. All the acts that belong to the same category act share the same purpose or the same illocutionary act, and they are the same in their strength or force.
2. All the utterances that can be made to serve the same purpose may vary in the syntactic form.
3. Conversation participants nearly always observe the CP and the maxims of the CP.
4. .A sentence is grammatical concept, and the meaning of a sentence is often studied as the abstract intrinsic property of the sentence itself in terms of a predication.
5. Utterance is based on sentence meaning; it is the realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a real situation of communication or simply in a context.
Ⅱ. There are four choices following each statement. Mark the choice that can best complete the statement.
1. All the utterance that can be made to serve the same purpose may vary in their _________ form.
A. syntactic B. semantic C. grammatical D. pragmatic
2. The cooperative Principle is proposed by ________.
A. John Searle B. John Austin C. Paul Grice D. John Lyons
3. Linguists found that it would be impossible to give an adequate description of meaning if the ________ of language use was left unconsidered.
A. brevity B. context C. accuracy D. none of the above